史上第一輛配備無線通訊的車子?

作者 : Cabe Atwell,EE Times特約作者

就像從未以文字記錄的食譜,沒有被實際採用的技術可能就會被遺忘在時間長河裡──沒有硬體留下來,也沒有設計案存檔。

美國國會圖書館(The Library of Congress)的《美國編年史》(Chronicling America)專案旨在提供大眾讀取歷史報紙以及將報紙數位化的管道,從其中可以挖掘到美國技術創新歷史,包括Marconi Wireless在1901年發明的汽車電報系統。

曾獲得諾貝爾物理獎的工程師Guglielmo Marconi,最廣為人知的就是在長距離無線電傳輸技術方面的成就,但他的發明並非全部都能通過時間的考驗──例如在1901年9月12日出刊的《太平洋商業廣告》(Pacific Commercial Advertiser)上刊登的一則包括文字說明的插圖,首度揭露了這樣一個特別的無線裝置:

 

 

在圖中被描述為「Maconi巫師最新發明」的裝置,是一輛在車頂上有著大型裝置的汽車──那是一個內含漏斗狀節理構造的管子,用以接收並發送無線傳輸。這跟我們可能會聯想到的車用無線電不太有關係,該設計旨在讓車子能在行駛中對前方道路發出訊號,大概是可作為駕駛人的安全措施。

根據描述,該「漏斗」可以豎起或是平放,但是直立的效果最好。從像是廣告一樣的插圖看來,該裝置已經是Marconi Wireless準備好推出市場的完整發明…那後來呢?

在一年之後的1902年9月2日,《伯明罕郵報》(Birmingham Age-Herald)有一篇題為「Marconi表示德國人偷走無線系統」(Marconi Says Germans Stole Wireless System)的報導,似乎又提到相同的裝置,這一次它是配備在德國海軍艦艇上。

該報導訪問了Marconi本人,他表示曾經遇見德國的電子技術先驅Adolf Slaby,鉅細靡遺地對Slaby解釋、展示了他的發明。而Marconi堅稱他從沒有要將該技術授權銷售給德國海軍,但是Slaby一轉頭就把該裝置拿去申請專利。

上述報導對那台裝置的敘述很少,也許是因為Marconi從那時候開始決定要保持沉默;至少看來該裝置與前面提到的汽車裝置是類似的東西──讓交通工具能彼此通訊的傳輸系統。而Marconi接著還繼續表示,德國海軍軍官會說他們使用的電報系統是Slaby的發明,但要是把他們灌醉了,他們就會承認那是Marconi的。

雖然這種笨重的天線看來並沒有在美國或任何地方被客戶廣泛應用,它有可能是Maconi眾多無線電報系統中的某一代;儘管堅持不會再公開討論他的發明,Macorni在報導的最後戲言,美國將會有好消息──透過簡化目前的系統,他的發明很快能支援2,500英哩(約4,023公里)的無線電報。

搜尋國際專利資料庫並未有太多其他發現,Marconi名下的專利若不是無線電報設備本身就是該類設備的改善。儘管這種車載裝置並未掀起什麼波瀾,其設計本身卻是Marconi的畢生成就之一。而雖然他的設計成果在那個世紀的汽車發展史上並不顯著,那仍是在私人汽車上配備通訊裝置的第一次嘗試。

很久之後,配備無線電收音機甚至藍牙的汽車已經很常見。車對車(V2V)通訊還不是車用標準技術,但或許正朝這樣的方向發展。2016年,美國運輸部提出了逐步要求新車強制配備V2V通訊功能的草案,主要的困難之一在於這類通訊將佔據很大一部分的無線電頻譜。

還有其他利益團體提議將該部分頻譜運用於高速上網服務。而美國政府自1999年就已經將某一部分無線頻譜預留給V2V,但到現在都還未開始使用。

回到Marconi在1901年的發明。他個人似乎並沒有因為技術未被採用或是被濫用而太過煩惱,當時的他總想著下一件要做的事情或是與俄國皇室會面。他聲稱,1902年在德國海軍艦艇上被使用的是舊版本的裝置,而且「一定很舊、幾乎沒有價值…但是儘管如此,還是比Slaby的好得多。」

編譯:Judith Cheng

(參考原文:Forgotten Inventions: Marconi’s Wireless Car,by Cabe Atwell )

 

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