萊頓瓶:古早時代的電容器

作者 : John Dunn,EDN專欄作家

古早時代的蓄電裝置——萊頓瓶(Leyden jar),正是當今所謂的電容器,其典型電容為1nF,即等於1000pF...

當美國政治家兼科學家富蘭克林(Benjamin Franklin)在一場雷電交加的暴風雨中進行風箏實驗,且經過多年後仍為人津津樂道的這個故事中,有一個用於儲存電荷的裝置稱為「萊頓瓶」(Leyden jar)。

在富蘭克林的實驗中,不但證實了閃電就是電,而且能夠經由掛在風箏線上的鑰匙導引到萊頓瓶,就像靜電那樣可以傳導與儲存。

時至今日,這個裝置正是我們所說的「電容器」(capacitor)。

在維基百科(Wikipedia)中有一篇關於萊頓瓶的介紹,其中提到在那個古早時代,萊頓瓶中的典型電容為1nF,即等於1000pF。根據中文版維基百科介紹,萊頓瓶…

…是一種用以儲存靜電的裝置,最先由Pieter van Musschenbroek (1692-1761年)在荷蘭的萊頓試用。作為原始形式的電容器,萊頓瓶曾被用來作為電學實驗的供電來源,也是電學研究的重大基礎。萊頓瓶的發明,標誌著對電的本質和特性進行研究的開始…

參考如下的古早時代附圖,只要對其實體尺寸進行一些合理的假設,就可以按照以下的草圖和計算方式所示來估算電容。

 

annotated diagram of a Leyden jar

圖1:參考古早時代附圖描繪的萊頓瓶(附加註解)。

 

設 垂直高度 = 8 英吋
設 直徑 = 4 英吋
則 半徑 = 2 英吋

圓柱面積 = 圓周 × 高度
圓柱面積 = π × 直徑 × 高度
圓柱面積 = π × 4 × 8 = 100.53 –> 100 平方英吋
磁碟面積 = π × 半徑2 + π × 22 = 12.57 –> 13平方英吋
總面積 = 113平方英吋

假設玻璃厚度為¼英吋。

…繼續閱讀請連結EDN Taiwan網站

 

 

 

 

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