迎接電動車黃金時代 充電設施準備好沒?

電動車正躍居主流,電動車充電基礎設施也持續擴展。根據世界經濟論壇的統計數據,到 2030 年將有 2.15 億輛電動乘用車上路;未來十年電動車的快速普及,將增加對電動車配套技術的需求。在本集節目中,我們邀請到義大利卡拉布里亞大學的電子、資訊暨系統科系電子學副教授Gregorio Cappuccino,以及《獲利成長策略──7個來自德國企業的經驗證最佳實踐》一書作者 Thomas Michael Hogg一起探討。

時長: 28:14 | 發佈者: EE Times Taiwan | 發佈時間: 2022-03-10

迎接電動車黃金時代 充電設施準備好沒?

Welcome to Powerup, the podcast show hosted by Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio, that brings life to some of the stories on power electronics technologies and products featured on PowerElectronicsNews.com and for other AspenCore Media publications.

歡迎收聽由Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio主持的podcast節目Powerup。本節目為 PowerElectronicsNews.com 和其他 AspenCore Media 旗下網站的內容帶來活力。

In this show, you’ll hear both engineers and executives discuss news, challenges and opportunities for power electronics and markets such as automotive, industrial and consumer. Here is your host, editor-in-Chief of Power Electronics News and EEWeb.com, Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio.

在本集節目中,您將聽到工程師和高層討論電力電子和汽車、工業與消費性電子等市場的新聞、挑戰和商機。我是主持人,Power Electronics News和EEWeb.com主編Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio:Hello everyone and welcome to this new episode of Power Up. In this episode, we’ll talk about electric vehicles and their charging stations. Electric vehicles are going mainstream as battery and power management technologies mature and the electric vehicle charging infrastructure expands, many nations around the world have made the commitment to outlaw the sale of petrol and diesel vehicles in the not-too-distant future. According to the World Economic Forum, 200 more or less million electric passenger vehicles will be on the road by 2030. With this rapid adoption of electric vehicles over the next decade, the demand for supporting technologies will continue to increase.

大家好,歡迎收聽最新一集的Power Up,在本集節目中,我們將討論電動車以及其充電站。隨著電池和電源管理技術的成熟,以及電動車充電基礎設施的擴展,電動車正成為主流,世界上許多國家已承諾在不久的將來禁止銷售汽油和柴油車。根據世界經濟論壇的統計數據,到 2030 年將有200萬輛左右的電動乘用車上路。隨著未來十年電動車的迅速普及,對配套技術的需求將繼續增加。

The market is continuing its acceleration towards electrification, and there are three aspects to consider: energy storage, efficiency, and the infrastructure that is critical to mass market customer adoption, I mean charging stations. Today we’ll talk about this topic with Thomas Michael Hogg and Gregorio cappuccino.

該市場正在繼續加速電氣化,需要考慮三個方面:儲能、效率,以及對大眾市場客戶之採用至關重要的基礎設施;我指的是充電站。今天我們將與Thomas Michael Hogg和Gregorio Cappuccino一起討論這個話題。

Thomas is the author of “A Profitable Growth Strategy: Seven Proven Best Practices from German Companies”. He is a consultant and mentor with more than 20 years of market and work experience in Germany, Switzerland, USA, and Mexico. Gregorio is an associate professor of electronics in the department of electronics, computer science and systems at the University of Calabria. He is the co-founder of spin off company of the same university specialized in charging stations for electric vehicles. Let’s talk with Thomas, and then Gregorio.

Thomas 是《獲利成長策略──7個來自德國企業的經驗證最佳實踐》一書的作者,他是一名顧問和導師,在德國、瑞士、美國和墨西哥擁有超過20年的市場和工作經驗。Gregorio是卡拉布里亞大學電子、資訊暨系統系的電子學副教授;他也是一家從該大學獨立、專長電動車充電站的新創公司共同創辦人。讓我們先和Thomas聊聊,接著是Gregorio。

Hi Thomas, thanks a lot for coming on. Thanks a lot for having you in this episode of Power up, how are you?

Hi Thomas,非常感謝你大駕光臨參加這一集Power up。你好嗎?

Thomas Michael Hogg:I’m fine. Many thanks for it, it’s great to talk to you and many thanks for inviting me to your podcast.

我很好,非常感謝,很高興能和你交談,也非常感謝邀請我參加你的podcast。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio:Great. So, the topic of today is electric vehicles, what’s next for electric vehicles. So, the market, the electric vehicle market has been growing dramatically for years. There are already plenty of electric and hybrid vehicles available in the market, the world is turning electric at a rapid pace. So, electrification race, electric transportation is revolutionizing mobility in a way that that we have never seen before. So, what is the current state of the electric vehicle market? which are the main players?

很好。所以,今天的話題是電動車;電動車的下一步是什麼?電動車市場多年來一直在急遽成長,市面上已經有很多電動和混合動力車款可供選擇,世界正快速轉向電動車。電氣化競賽、電動交通正在以我們從未見過的方式徹底改變移動性。那麼,電動車市場的現狀如何?主要參與者有哪些?

Thomas Michael Hogg:it’s a mega trend, for not saying a Giga trend like the Giga factories from Tesla, it’s really a Giga trend when we talk about sustainability in the sustainability needs and requirements of the market and the newer generations, right? When we talk about the different players, of course, we have to talk about Tesla and the vision of Elon Musk really invest into the sector and not only investing into the sector for business, also to really have a purpose as a sustainable brand. And this is why I guess it’s the biggest market player and one of the leaders when it comes to electric vehicles, but also the traditional automaker brands like of course the German ones like Volkswagen with its key brand Audi and they have a lot of success with their… especially with the E Tron model, but also the other ones like BMW, Mercedes are… and the goals of Porsche… are going into this market.

這是一個大趨勢,不是說像特斯拉超級工廠那樣,但當我們談到永續性以及市場和下一代對永續性的需求時,那真的是一個超級趨勢,不是嗎?而當我們談論不同的參與者時,當然,我們不得不談到特斯拉和Elon Musk的願景,是真正投資該領域,不僅為了商業而投資,還真正有一個目標是作為具永續性的品牌;這是為什麼我認為它是最大的市場參與者,也是電動車領域的領導者之一。而且還有傳統品牌車廠,像是德國的Volkswagen還有它們旗下主要品牌Audi,它們取得了很大的成功…特別是E Tron車款,還有BMW、Mercedes等其他車廠…以及Porsche…的目標都是進入這個市場。

And when we talk about the other countries, also the Japanese brands… Honda, Nissan, the US brands… Ford General Motors, and there are some newer players from China, the big company and also TATA Motors from India, this is really interesting to see how this market is getting more and more competitive with new models. And I guess we will see a lot of dynamic or a really dynamic market in the future.

當我們談到其他國家,還有日本車廠…Honda、Nissan,美國車廠如Ford/GM Motors,與一些來自中國的新進廠商、大公司,還有印度的TATA Motors;看著這個市場陸續有新車款問世、競爭越來越激烈,真的非常有趣。我想我們在未來會看到一個有很多活力、或者說真正活力十足的市場。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio:So, you’re changing something that a lot of people have had stayed the same way in their life for a long time just thinking about gasoline and electric car and for now for that vehicle. So, it’s a little bit of a change in expectation. Do you think there are social and cultural barriers in accepting electric vehicles?

所以,一些事情正在改變,很多人長期以來日常生活一直保持不變,只想到汽油;而現在是電動車。這有點是預期事務的改變。你認為接受電動車會遇到社會和文化障礙嗎?

Thomas Michael Hogg: Of course! I mean, now there is a greener and more sustainable awareness of the people. So, there are countries like Norway and like Switzerland, for example. And there’s also… about the purchasing power of these countries and then the people living there where we can see how the people, and especially the younger generations, are buying more and more electric vehicles. But there are some barriers.

當然!我的意思是,現在人們有了更環保、更具永續性的意識;舉例來說,像是挪威、瑞士等國家,還有…關於這些國家的購買力以及我們可以看到生活在那裡的人們,特別是年輕世代,正朝向採購越來越多的電動車。但還是有一些障礙。

Of course, when we talk about the vehicle costs, we have to see, we need some cheaper models. And we need some also cheaper technologies that we can really say that in five to ten years, we have more than 50% of all cars out there electric, right? So yes, there are some barriers. Maybe when we talk about the trend, the awareness, this is really going fast. All of this is pushed from almost all the governments when we talk about Biden, when we talk about Merkel and Germany, they’re investing a lot, especially in this electric market. And I guess we need some years. So especially about the price of the cars.

當然,在我們談到車輛成本時,我們必然會看到,我們需要一些更便宜的車款,我們需要一些更便宜的技術。我們真的可以說在五到十年內,我們有超過50%的車子是電動的,對吧?所以是的,有一些障礙。也許當我們談到趨勢、意識時,真的變化很快,一切幾乎都是各國政府推動的。美國總統拜登、德國前任總理梅克爾,他們都進行了大量投資,尤其是在電動車市場。我想我們需要幾年時間,特別是關於車輛的價格。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio:The electric vehicle market still faces two significant challenges: cost, as you said, and driving range. Driving range is considered to be the major trend for full electric vehicle adoption. One way to reduce costs and increase system efficiency is to integrate the power train from the semiconductors point of view, the power train system of an electric vehicle involves several solutions from onboard charger through the battery and its management system. Where should we push to reduce the cost?

電動車市場仍然面臨兩個重大挑戰:成本,如你所言,以及行駛里程。行駛里程被認為是全電動車款獲得採用的主要趨勢。降低成本和提高系統效率的一種方法,是從半導體的角度整合動力傳動系統。電動車的動力傳動系統涉及從車載充電器到電池及其管理系統的多種解決方案。我們應該從哪裡著力降低成本?

Thomas Michael Hogg:Yeah, first, we have to see that technology and the performance of the cars are working out at an unexpected level, right. As you said, when we talk about driving ranges, that has to be or have to be increased also about the charging times and the whole charging infrastructure we are going to need in different countries. But of course, I mean, the power train system is really key there as well. I guess a lot of people out there do not know that around 50% of the cost of an electric vehicle is concentrated on its power train.

是的。首先,我們必須看到車輛的技術和性能達到預期之外的水準,對吧。如你所說,當我們談到行駛里程必須要增加,充電時間和我們需要的整體充電基礎設施也必須增加,在不同國家都是如此。但是當然,我的意思是,動力傳動系統也很關鍵。我想很多人都不知道電動車大約有 50% 的成本集中在其動力傳動系統。

When we talk about there, we have to talk about the battery pack so that the inverters and controllers and all the components, we have to see this cost for these technologies and for these components have to go down in the next years, so that we can have much more reasonable prices for the cars. But I think there’s one really important topic and this is about the aftermarket. So, we need more aftermarket companies who are later interested in selling these systems and also the batteries, the powertrain system, so that we can lower the prices in the next years.

當我們談到那裡,就必須談到電池組,還有逆變器、控制器以及所有零件,我們必須看到這些技術的成本以及這些組件必須在未來幾年下降,好讓我們為車輛提供更合理的價格。但我認為有一個非常重要的話題,那就是後裝市場。所以,我們需要更多的後裝市場公司,他們之後會有興趣銷售這些系統以及電池、動力傳動系統,這樣我們就可以在未來幾年降低價格。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: So, increase in the sales of electric vehicles, but not only I guess, is leading to an increase in the production of rechargeable batteries each year, and many of the raw materials used may soon run out. So how do we safely recycle the batteries that power e-cars and with accessible cost? What is the future? What do you think?

所以,電動車銷售量的增加,不只是我猜想的,正帶動充電電池的產量也每年增加,而且許多所需的原料可能很快就會用完。那麼,我們如何安全地回收電動車電池,而且是以可承受的成本?未來會怎麼樣?你怎麼認為?

Thomas Michael Hogg: That’s really a good point Maurizio. Because I think the current electric vehicle batteries are really not designed to be recycled the first place. I mean, this is a deal process, I guess the governments are really taking a key role there. And they have to take key role there because they are kind of forced in regulating this market. And they should do that. And also, we have a higher level of recycling in this market, right?

Maurizio,這是很重要的一點。因為我覺得現在的電動車電池實際上並非被設計成可回收再利用。我的意思是,這是一個交易過程,我想政府確實在其中發揮了關鍵作用,他們必須扮演一個關鍵角色,因為他們在某種程度上被迫監管這個市場;他們也應該這樣做。而且,這樣我們在這個市場上的回收水準也會更高,對吧?

So, when we talk China started over in 2018, to impose some rules to promote the reuse of the electric vehicle battery components, and also the European Union and the United States are trying to force the companies to advance in this recycling challenge. So, I guess first of all, we need some more regulations and forcing the companies to design the batteries to be recycled.

例如中國在 2018 年就開始訂定規則促進電動車電池零組件的再利用,歐盟和美國也在嘗試強制要求這些公司在回收的挑戰上有所進展。所以,我想首先我們需要更多的法規,迫使這些公司設計可回收的電池。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: So, another challenge, I think is going to be our infrastructure, it is going to have to change in terms of charging time. I mean, things like our electric grids…having more charging stations. So, what do you think, What’s the situation?

所以,我認為另一個挑戰會是我們的基礎設施,它必須在充電時間方面有所改變。我的意思是,像是我們的電網…還有更多的充電站。那麼,你怎麼看,情況如何?

Thomas Michael Hogg: Yeah, as we see there is a huge need for charging infrastructures in this country because I mean, when we talk later about the requirements of the customers, I mean, they need it, again, I mean, they want performance, but they want it at a fair price. And time is money and the resources which we need there in different countries, I guess. I mean, we are just beginning to set up all this infrastructure. But again, when we see the adoption, I mean of the electric cars, I mean, I guess this can be really fast. So, I think in in four to five years, we can really see a difference in the charging infrastructure in the more developed countries and step by step also in the bigger cities in the emerging economies.

是的,正如我們看到的那樣,一個國家對充電基礎設施的需求巨大;因為…我的意思是,當我們稍後討論到客戶的要求時,他們需要它…我的意思是,他們想要性能,但他們又想要公道的價格。我想,時間就是金錢,我們需要的資源在不同國家情況也不同。我的意思是,我們才剛剛開始建立所有這些基礎設施。但是,當我們看到電動車獲得採用…我想這可能真的很快…因此,我認為在四到五年內,我們可以真正看到更多已開發國家在充電基礎設施方面有所不同,在新興經濟體的大城市中也可以逐步看到。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: So, how long before wireless charging of electric vehicle batteries will become a reality? So, whether it’s through the road, or solar panels on the vehicle, or some other means.

那麼,電動車電池的無線充電要多久才能成為現實呢?無論是透過路面或車輛上的太陽能光電板,或者其他一些方式。

Thomas Michael Hogg: I guess I mean, there that the technology has to be developed more in detail. I guess we’re talking about…. It’s difficult to make an estimate. But I guess there we talk about 10 years, around 10 years, I guess, 10 to 15 years to develop a little bit more sophisticated and wireless charging systems that really can work out in the long term. Good.

我想,相關技術必須更仔細地開發…時間很難估計,但我們談論的會是 10 年左右的事情,需要10 到 15 年來開發更複雜的、真的可以長期發揮作用的無線充電系統。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: Good, so…we are in conclusion. My last question, what does the future of electric vehicles look like for you in the next 10, 20 years?

很好,所以…我們進入結論。我的最後一個問題是,電動車在未來 10 年、20 年會是什麼樣子?

Thomas Michael Hogg: As I said at the beginning, I mean, first of all, it’s about the competitiveness and it’s about for the different brands different brands, not only about the solution, it’s also about branding. So, the markets of the different brands are really important. And I tried to point out here that obviously some of the traditional brands when I talk about and I know a little bit more about the German brands, really when we talk about BMW when we talk about Audi, I mean, they have really good positioning on when we talk about performance.

正如我一開始所說的,首先,這關乎競爭力,關乎不同(車廠)品牌;不僅關乎解決方案,還關乎品牌塑造。因此,不同品牌的市場非常重要。我想在這裡指出的是,顯然一些傳統品牌…我對德國品牌了解得更多,像是BMW、Audi,在我們談到性能時,他們的定位非常好。

When we talk about quality, obviously, also Mercedes and Porsche and there, I guess, they have a kind of advantage with some traditional brands. And also, because of their distribution network, they do already have the German brands are particularly really strong in the Asian market or in China. So, this is what I see in the future, right? I mean, there is competition about the models and about the performance. But also, it’s about branding, but you need really, you need a good distribution network. And then also you cannot underestimate each local market is different, right?

而當我們談到品質時,顯然Mercedes和 Porsche等,我想他們相較於其他一些傳統品牌具有某種優勢。而且,由於他們的銷售通路,德國品牌在亞洲或中國市場表現特別強。這就是我看到的未來,是吧?我的意思是,關於車款和性能存在競爭,而且那也與品牌行銷有關,還有真的需要良好的銷售通路。然後也不能低估每個地方市場的差異,對吧?

And when we talk about the legal conditions, when we talk there about the competitor responses, when we talk about the States, General Motors and Ford, they also are trying to push into this market. So I guess it’s all about a competitiveness. And there’s some uncertainty for these new brands. And at the end of the day, this is the I mean, I guess the good news for the customers, right? If there is more competition, I guess we can see the pricing is going down. And also, there are different models, which we can access, and the more people can access this electric vehicles, which is really a great trend, again, when we talk about sustainability.

而當我們談到法規條件、競爭對手的反應,當我們談到美國、GM和Ford…他們也在努力進入這個市場。所以我想這都是與競爭力相關,這些新品牌也存在一些不確定性。歸根結柢,我想這對客戶來說是好消息,對吧?如果有更多的競爭,我想我們可以看到價格下降。而且有不同的車款選擇,也有更多人能取得電動車。當我們談到環保永續時,這確實是一個很大的趨勢。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: Good. Thank you, Thomas. It has been a pleasure to talk with you about electric vehicles. Thank you.

很好。謝謝你,Thomas。很高興能與你討論電動車。謝謝!

Thomas Michael Hogg: Many thanks.

非常感謝


與業界專家一同探討電動車最新趨勢與充電基礎設施部署挑戰,快來報名電動出行新時代研討會暨論壇!


Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio:Hi Gregorio, thanks a lot for coming on. How are you?

Hi Gregorio,非常感謝你的光臨。你好嗎?

Gregorio Cappuccino: Hi Maurizio, I’m fine. Thank you for the invitation.

Hi Maurizio,我很好。謝謝你的邀請。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: So, the topic of today is electric vehicles and its charging stations. But before going into details, tell me more about you. Please introduce yourself.

今天的主題是電動車及充電站。但我們開始詳談之前,請告訴我更多關於你的訊息,請先自我介紹。

Gregorio Cappuccino: So, my name is Gregorio Cappuccino. I am professor at the University of Calabria, Italy. My research interests are on battery management and mart charging for electric vehicles. Currently, I teach classes in electronic devices for power supply and smart recharge. I’m also the CEO of CalBatt. that is a company specialized in smart charging solution for electric mobility. The company has been participated by the largest utility in Italy and thanks to its innovative technology and products CalBatt has been selected among the 100 Italian excellences presented at the Paris Climate Change Conference.

我是Gregorio Cappuccino,在義大利卡拉布里亞大學擔任教授。我的研究興趣是電動車電池管理和市場充電。目前,我也教授有關電源和智慧充電的電子元件課程。我同時也是CalBatt的執行長 ,那是一家專門從事電動車會能充電解決方案的公司,獲得義大利最大公用事業的參與;並且拜其創新技術和產品之賜, CalBatt也獲選為在巴黎氣候變遷會議上簡報的 100 家義大利優秀企業之一。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: The world as you know is moving toward electric vehicles. So, the electrification race is going very fast. Tell me we what is the current state of the electric vehicle market? What is the news in terms of market, whether the world is ready to switch over to electric vehicles also depends on the cost? So, what are the main drivers in terms of cost for electric vehicles?

如你所知,世界正轉向電動車,電氣化競賽進行得非常快速。告訴我電動車市場的現狀如何?在市場上有什麼新訊息?世界是否準備好轉向電動車並取決於成本?以及電動車成本的主要驅動因素是什麼?

Gregorio Cappuccino: Well, despite the COVID pandemic in 2020 the number of electric vehicles in circulation reached a threshold of 10 million with an increasing registration about 43% more than the previous year. And in this scenario, Europe had the largest annual increase with about 1.4 million of new registrations. China ranks second with 1.2 million and in the USA, the absolute growth has been just 295000s of new electric cars. But even in the USA, the situation is developing for example, after the launch of its F-150 Lightning Ford was a resounding success and receives more than 120000s pre orders. Moreover, with COVID-19 recover packages many countries focused heavily on EVs with a very significant acceleration towards transportation electrification.

儘管 2020 年發生了新冠病毒疫情,市場流通的電動車數量達到了 1,000 萬輛的門檻,掛牌數量比前一年度增加了約 43%。在這種情況下,歐洲的年增率最高,新掛牌量約 140 萬。中國以 120 萬輛居次;而在美國,新電動車的絕對增長僅為 29.5 萬輛。但即使在美國,情況也在持續發展;舉例例來說,在其 F-150 Lightning Ford 推出後取得了巨大的成功,收到超過 12萬輛的預購訂單。此外,許多國家的新冠疫情振興方案重點聚焦放電動車,在實現交通電氣化上有很明顯的加速。

This is a recent measure a business consulting providers predict more or less 35 million of electric vehicles by 2030. This means s compounded annual growth rate of more than 26% that is a huge amount. And without doubts, one of the factors that impacts on EV diffusion is the cost. The reason is that for the higher electric vehicle purchase price compared with traditional car is the high cost of the battery. Just for example, to have an idea, for passenger medium segment car, the battery costs alone can account for up to 1/3 of the total cost of the vehicle. In clearly in the case of SUV the powertrain accounts for a smaller share of total cost compared with a medium or a small car but anyway battery as a very high impact. Anyway, it is reasonable to expect the annulment of the price difference for passengers vehicle at least by more or less the end of the 20s, thanks to a reduction of battery price. My opinion is that price difference will reduce ever more rapidly thanks to the introduction of some disruptive innovation for example, in the battery pack integration in the vehicle frame… a solution that recently developed Tesla.

一家商業顧問公司最近預測,估計到 2030 年電動車數量將達到 3,500 萬輛左右。這意味著超過 26%的複合平均年成長率,是很大的數字。毫無疑問,影響電動車普及的因素之一是成本。究其原因,與傳統汽車相比,電動車的採購價格較高,主要是電池成本較高。舉個例子,對於乘用中型轎車來說,僅電池成本就可以占到整車總成本的1/3。顯然,以休旅車為案例,與中型或小型車相比,動力傳動系統在總成本中所佔的比例較小,但總之電池的影響非常大。無論如何,由於電池價格的降低,至少在2020 年代末期前消除乘用車的價格差異是合理的。我的觀點是,由於導入了一些顛覆性的創新,例如整合在車架的電池組…即最近特斯拉開發的解決方案,價格差異將更快地縮小。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: Total charging energy demand for the electric vehicle population across China, Europe and the USA could grow dramatically from the next years increasing from 20 billion kilowatt per hour to about 300 million kilowatt hours. This reflects the adoption of electric vehicles, total miles driven per year and the average kilowatt hours required per mile. While 300 billion kilowatt per hour sounds like a big number it represents less than 10% of current USA energy demand, what is your opinion, how much energy will electric vehicles require?

未來幾年,中國、歐洲和美國對電動車人口的總充電能量需求可能會急遽增加,從每小時 200 億千瓦小時增加到約 3 億千瓦小時。這反映了電動車的採用、每年行駛的總里程以及每英哩所需的平均千瓦小時。雖然每小時 3,000 億千瓦聽起來是很大的數字,但它只佔據美國當前能源需求的不到 10%,你認為電動車需要多少能源?

Gregorio Cappuccino: I think that the estimation you presented is fully compliant with the basic calculation because as a rule of thumb, the around the average consumption ranges nowadays from 150 to 250 watt-hours per kilometer. So, in thinking to a medium annual millage, you arrive to an amount of total energy demand that s more or less just 1/10. I’m talking about the global energy consumption of all vehicles circulating in the world that is less than 10% of the USA energy power set. So, you are right it seems to be reasonable. The problem is not how much energy is required. The problem is where and when this energy is required. You have to think that the daily trend of power demand for electric vehicle charging is very different from the energy demand of more consolidated classic load. So, in some cases, you can have a very negative impact for the electric grid in terms of congestion and power quality.

我認為你提出的估算完全符合基本計算,因為根據經驗,現在的平均消耗範圍在每公里 150 到 250 瓦特小時之間。因此,考慮到年產值中位數,得出的總能源需求量或多或少只有 1/10。我說的是世界上流通的所有車輛的全球能源消耗,不到美國發電量的 10%。所以,你是對的,這似乎是合理的。問題不在於需要多少能量,問題是何時、何地需要這種能量。你不得不去想,電動車充電的日常電力需求趨勢與更固定的傳統負載能源需求有很大的不同。因此,在某些情況下,就擁塞和電力品量而言,可能會對電網產生非常負面的影響。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: One of the major points to consider is the lack of charging points. One of the significant concerns for drivers is the fear that electric vehicles won’t hold enough charge to reach their destination. Currently, the Netherlands and I think other countries have the highest density of electric vehicle charging stations and the rest of the world needs to follow that to support the population of electric vehicles with the significant investment in rapid charge points that have also been issues with the reliability of public charge points, which need to be solved to ensure public confidence. What is the situation what factors should be considered to improve efficiency and charging time?

要考量的主要問題之一是缺乏充電站點。駕駛人最關心的問題之一是擔心電動車無法保持足夠的電量以到達目的地。目前,荷蘭和一些國家已經擁有最高密度的電動車充電站,我想世界其他國家也需要效仿,透過對快速充電站的大量投資來支持電動車的數量,這也是電動車充電站的問題。公共收費點的可靠性,需要解決,以確保公眾的信心。什麼情況應該考慮哪些因素來提高效率和充電時間?

Gregorio Cappuccino: Actually, Netherlands is the country with the highest number of public installations in Europe and is the third in the world after China and the United States and Netherlands is the first one in terms of number of charging stations per inhabitant. Anyway, the situation is evolving very quickly. Oil and Gas and power giants are diversifying their portfolio investing just in charging infrastructure. Just to have an idea solely in the USA it is predicted that this kind of investment will exceed the $18 billion annually by 2030, for equipment installation, operation, and services. All over the world, the global deployment of the charging station will increase at very high compound rate ranging from 25 to 30%, leading to more than 60 million units by 2030.

實際上,荷蘭是歐洲公用充電站安裝數量最多的國家,僅次於中國和美國,位居世界第三,人均充電樁數量居世界第一。無論如何,情況正在迅速發展。石油、天然氣和電力巨擘正在使其投資組合多樣化,正在投資充電基礎設施。光是在美國,預期到 2030 年,此類投資將超過每年 180 億美元,用於設備安裝、營運和服務。在全球範圍內,充電站的全球部署將以 25%~30% 非常高的複合率年成長率成長,到 2030 年將超過 6,000 萬台。

Charging time has without the strong impact on public confidence. It is worth pointing out that the eight hours required to charge a typical electrical are usually acceptable for drivers that have the possibility for charging overnight near home. In all other cases, fast charging station able to deliver to 50, 150 up to 250 kilowatts are actually a good solution. Clearly, fast chargers are expensive to build and to operate. But thanks to the rising number of government policies for electric vehicles and private investments, the 10s of millions of electric vehicles that will circulate in 2030 will have no problem finding an energy station along the road, in my opinion.

充電時間對公眾信心沒有強烈影響。值得提出的是,對於可能在家附近充電過夜的駕駛人來說,典型電動車需的8 小時充電時間通常是可以接受的。在所有其他情況下,能夠提供 50、150 到 250 千瓦的快速充電站,實際上是一個很好的解決方案。顯然,快速充電器的製造和運作成本很高,但在我看來,由於政府對電動車的政策與私人投資的政策越來越多,到 2030 年,市面上流通的數十萬輛電動車要在路邊找到一個能源站是沒有問題的。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: So, it’s important to align all charging points on data standards providing electric vehicle drivers with a good experience no matter where they are. Charge point operators are often too busy focusing on exponential growth to work on data and standards. So, what’s stopping standardization in the world of electric vehicle charging? what are the challenges the main challenges for the future?

因此,讓所有充電站點的資料標準保持一致非常重要,無論他們身在何處,都能為電動車駕駛人提供良好的體驗。充電站營運商通常忙於專注於指數級成長,無暇處理資料和標準。那麼,是什麼阻礙了電動車充電領域的標準化?未來的主要挑戰是什麼?

Gregorio Cappuccino: Well, for an electric vehicle driver, it is essential to use various charging stations, even if the driver is only a customer of one charging point operator. In a similar manner as a cellular phone, charging service provider operators are developing roaming agreements that allow final user to find the access and pay for charging everywhere without additional signup, fees or markups. This is the result of the effort of the company Alliance whose aim is exactly to foster the global deployment, the adoption of communication protocols and related standards for electric vehicle charging infrastructure.

對於電動車駕駛人來說,使用各種充電站是必須的,即使駕駛人只是一家充電站點營運商的客戶。透過與蜂巢式行動電話類似的方式,充電服務營運商正在開發漫遊協議,允許終端用戶在任何地方找到接取點並支付充電費用,無需額外的註冊、費用或加價。這是一個廠商聯盟(EETT編按:Open Charge Alliance)努力的結果,該聯盟的目標正是促進電動車充電基礎設施的全球部署、通訊協議和相關標準的採用。

Standardization is also an issue for payment, that is another aspect that is facing with a deep transformation. For example, the recent regulation which will come into effect in Jun 2023, and that has been included in Germany requires all future charging points to have a debit or credit card reader. It is a quite better regulation. But I think that this decision will be adopted in the very near future in other countries too. And this is thanks to the development of a unique platform and more or less unique standard.

支付方面的標準化也是一個問題,這是另一個面臨深度轉型的面向。舉例來說,最近有一項預計於 2023 年 6 月生效的法規,在德國要求境內所有未來充電點站點都必須配備簽帳卡或信用卡讀卡機;這是相當好的規定,我認為這個決定在不久的將來也會在其他國家被採納。這要歸功於獨特平台和或多或少獨特標準的開發。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: Yeah. So, in a world where charging electric cars is a key point in boosting the energy transition, other solutions can come alongside the electric charging stations. So, what are these others? So, one, one such solution is wireless, wireless charging, I guess what do you think?

所以,在一個可充電電動車是推動能源轉型關鍵點的世界裡,是否在充電站之外也有其他解決方案?這些方案會是什麼?這樣的解決方案之一會是無線、無線充電;你認為如何?

Gregorio Cappuccino: Well, as additional charging technology may mitigate some issues related to the charging, okay. Anyway, there are other solutions that will accelerate the transition to electric mobility. The other thing, the most interesting is a tight integration of public and domestic charging devices with the power grid. In this way, for example, charging point operators or grid operators can virtually aggregate a certain number of residential charging devices for energy demand coordination and service to the grid.

額外的充電技術或許可以舒緩與充電相關的一些問題。是的,無論如何,還有其他解決方案可以加速朝向電動車的轉移。另一方面,最有趣的地方在於公共與家用充電設備與電網的緊密整合;透過這種方式,例如,充電站點營運商或電網營運商可以虛擬地聚合一定數量的住宅充電設備,以協調能源需求並為電網服務。

In Italy, we are directly involved, with CalBatt, in the development of the new generation of domestic wall boxes, domestic charging stations that are wanted by the energy authority. A wall box that will allow users to obtain an increase of available power for charging for free, and also discount the rates for energy, so to cover from 30 up to 100% of the annual recharge cost. This is setting the standard for a charging station at the residential level for the next years. And it is a very interesting market opportunity in accordance with the forecasts of about 3.3 million of the private charging points by 2030 in Italy, and I think this is the kind of initiative that really fosters the development of a greener mobility.

在義大利,我們與能源儲存方案供應商CalBatt合作,直接參與了能源當局想要的新一代家用壁掛式充電裝置、家用充電站的開發。一個壁掛式充電裝置可以讓用戶免費獲得更多的可用電量進行充電,並且還可以獲得能源費率的折扣,用以支付 30% 到 100% 的年度充電成本。這為未來幾年的住宅等級充電站設定了標準。根據到 2030 年全義大利約有 330 萬個私人充電站點的預測,這是一個非常有趣的市場機會,我認為這是一種真正促進綠色出行發展的舉措。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: Okay, that’s great. Thanks a lot, Gregorio. It’s been a pleasure to talk with you. Thank you.

好的,非常好。謝謝Gregorio,很高興能你交談,謝謝你。

Gregorio Cappuccino: Thank you, Maurizio, Ciao!

謝謝Maurizio,再見!

Maurizio Di Poalo Emilio: Thank you, Thomas and Gregorio. It’s a mega trend, not saying a Giga trend like the Gigafactory. From Tesla. It’s really a Giga trend as Thomas said, a lot of brands are moving in this market: BMW, Mercedes, Honda Nissan, Ford General Motors, and there are some new players from China. And also, TATA Motors from India. The powertrain system is really key. And around 50% of the cost of an electric vehicle is concentrated on its power train. And when we talk about that, we have to talk about battery packs, inverters, onboard charger, controllers, and all the components that we have, to see that the cost for these technologies has to go down in the next years, so that we can have much more accessible prices for the cars. Thomas thinks that the car and electric vehicle batteries are really not designed to be recycled at first place. We need some more regulations and forcing the companies to design the batteries to be recycled. In four or five years, we can really see a difference in in the cabling infrastructure with new developments in the emerging economies. There is a competition about models and about the performance. But also, it’s about branding, and you need a good distribution network.

謝謝Thomas與Gregorio。如 Thomas所說,這是一個大趨勢,很多車廠品牌都朝著電動車市場發展:BMW、Mercedes、Honda、Nissan、Ford (General Motors),還有一些來自中國的新玩家、以及印度的TATA Motors。動力傳動系統真的很關鍵,電動車大約有 50% 的成本集中在其動力傳動系統上。當我們談論這個時,我們必須談論電池組、逆變器、車載充電器、控制器以及我們擁有的所有零件,以確保這些技術的成本在未來幾年必須下降,以便我們可以為汽車提供更容易獲得的價格。Thomas也認為,電動車和電動車電池一開始就不是為了回收而設計的,我們需要更多的法規,迫使業者設計可回收的電池。在四、五年內,我們可以真正看到新興經濟體在部署基礎設施方面的差異。有一場關於車款和性能的競賽,而且它是關於品牌的,你需要一個良好的銷售通路。

Also, you cannot underestimate each local market. Despite the COVID pandemic in 2020, the number of electric vehicles in circulation reached an increase in registration of about 40% more than the previous year, according to Gregorio. Gregorio said that the problem is not how much energy is required. The problem is where and when this energy is required. You have to think that the daily trend of power demand for electric vehicles charging is very different from the energy demand of more consolidated classic loads. In the world, the global deployment of charging stations will increase to more than 16 million units by 2030.

此外,你不能低估每個地方市場。 Gregorio 表示,儘管 2020 年發生了新冠疫情大流行,但流通中的電動車數量仍比上一年度增加了約 40%。 Gregorio 說,問題不在於需要多少能源,問題是何時何地需要這類能源。你不得不思考,電動車充電的電力需求日常趨勢,與更固定的經典負載能源需求有很大的不同。在全球範圍內,到 2030 年,全球充電站的部署將增加到超過 1,600 萬個。

Clearly, fast chargers are expensive to build and to operate, according to Gregorio, but thanks to the rising number of governments’ policies for electric vehicles and the private investments, the millions of electric vehicles that will circulate in 2030 will have no problem finding an energy station along the road according to Gregorio. The most interesting is a tight integration of public and domestic charging devices with the power grid.

根據Gregorio 的說法,顯然快速充電站的建造和運營成本很高,但歸功於政府的電動車政策以及私人投資越來越多,將於 2030 年在市面流通的數百萬輛電動車,毫無問題可以在路邊找到充電站。最有趣的是公共和家用充電設備與電網的緊密整合。

That brings us to the end of this episode. Stay tuned with more news and technical aspects about power electronics. If you are listening to this on the podcast page at EEtimes.com, or PowerElectronicsNews.com, links to articles on topics we have discussed, are shown in this page. PowerUp is brought to you by AspenCore media, the host is Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio and the producer is James Ead. Thank you everyone for listening. See you next episode. Stay tuned.

而我們這一集節目也到了尾聲,請繼續關注更多與電力電子相關的新聞和技術觀點。如果你是在 EEtimes.com 或 PowerElectronicsNews.com 的頁面上收聽此podcast內容,我們的網站頁面上都可以找到我們討論過的主題文章連結。 PowerUp系列節目是由 AspenCore發行,主持人是 Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio,製作人是 James Ead 。謝謝大家的聆聽,下集見!

編譯:Judith Cheng

(本集Podcast原刊登於EE Times美國版網站,參考原文請點此連結)

發表評論