電動車(EV)和混合動力車(HEV)正在尋求高效和具成本效益的電力轉換技術。與矽相比,寬能隙半導體的性能更高。在這集與意法半導體(STMicroelectronics)功率電晶體子集團策略行銷部Filippo Di Giovanni對談的podcast中,Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio將著重於討論目前的挑戰以及氮化鎵/碳化矽(GaN/SiC)能夠為汽車產業帶來哪些好處。

時長: 21:47 | 發佈者: EE Times Taiwan | 發佈時間: 2023-03-30


Welcome to Power Up, a podcast show hosted by Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio that brings life to some of the stories on power electronics technologies and products featured on PowerElectronicsNews.com and through other AspenCore Media publications. In this show, you’ll hear both engineers and executives discuss news, challenges, and opportunities for power electronics in markets such as automotive, industrial, and consumer. Here is your host, Editor-in-chief for PowerElectronicsNews.com and EEWeb.com, Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio.

歡迎收聽由Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio主持的podcast節目Powerup。本節目為PowerElectronicsNews.com和其他AspenCore Media旗下網站的內容帶來活力。在本節目中,您將聽到工程師和高層討論在汽車、工業與消費性電子等市場的電力電子相關新聞、挑戰和商機。歡迎我們的主持人,Power Electronics News和EEWeb.com主編Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: Hello everyone, and welcome to this new episode. Today, the topic of this episode is wideband gap semiconductors for electric vehicles. Electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles are on the lookout for power conversion solutions that are both efficient and cost-effective.

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio:大家好,歡迎收聽最新一集的PowerUP。今天,這一集的主題是用於電動車(EV)的寬能隙半導體。電動車和混合動力車(HEV)正在尋求高效和具成本效益的電力轉換技術。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: Wideband gap semiconductor such as gallium nitride and silicon carbide provide superior performance compared to silicon. In this podcast with Filippo Di Giovanni, Strategic Marketer Power Transistor subgroup at STMicroelectronics, we’ll discuss– we’ll understand the main challenges and which benefits ga- gallium nitride or silicon carbide can offer to the automotive industry. Let me introduce Filippo and talk about these topics.

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio:與矽相比,氮化鎵(GaN )和碳化矽(SiC)寬能隙半導體的性能更高。本期podcadt邀請到意法半導體(STMicroelectronics)功率電晶體子集團策略行銷部Filippo Di Giovanni與我們共同討論,我們將會瞭解主要的挑戰以及GaNSiC可以為汽車產業提供哪些好處。首先介紹Filippo再來談談這些話題。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: Hi Filippo. Thanks a lot for being here. How are you?

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio:嗨,Filippo。非常感謝您的參與。您好嗎?

Filippo Di Giovanni: Fine, thanks.  Maurizio.

Filippo Di Giovanni:我很好,謝謝你,Maurizio

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: So, Filippo, today we will talk about wide band gap semiconductors for electric vehicles for automotive industry. But before- before that, before sharing my questions, so, tell us, tell me more, about- about you. Tell me more about your background.

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: 那麼,Filippo,我們今天將討論在汽車產業中用於電動車的寬能隙半導體。但是,在這之前,在分享我的問題之前,請告訴我們,告訴我更多關於你自己。請先介紹你自己和你的背景。

Filippo Di Giovanni: Thank you, Maurizio.

Filippo Di Giovanni:謝謝你,Maurizio

Thank you very much. It’s a real pleasure for me to be here discussing about the wideband gap semiconductors in general and in particular for the automotive industry. My name is Filippo Di Giovanni, and I work STMicroelectronics Italy inside the Power Transistor subgroup, formerly Power Transistor Division.

非常感謝你。我很榮幸能在這裡討論整體寬能隙半導體,特別是針對汽車產業。我的名字是Filippo Di Giovanni,任於ST義大利公司的功率電晶體子集團,以前是功率電晶體部門。

Filippo Di Giovanni: We develop and commercialize power transistors in different technologies, silicon, silicon carbide, and gallium nitrite. And offer this in a large variety of packages and power modules.

Filippo Di Giovanni:我們開發並商業化不同技術的功率電晶體,包括矽(Si)SiCGaN,並以各種不同的封裝和功率模組方式提供。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: Thank you. So, automotive industry is moving, towards zero emissions. Transportation and manufacturers are rapidly ramp- ramping up their electrification programs, right? To meet expectations from- from customer on performance these electric vehicles require efficient power electronics devices such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride technologies. So, all the power train would include several parts when, GaN and silicon carbide, where can, where again and silicon carbide can do the difference in terms of efficiency. So, where GaN and silicon carbide can do the difference in the power train and why?

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio:謝謝。汽車產業正朝向零排放的方向發展。運輸和製造商也正在迅速提升其電氣化計劃,對嗎?為了滿足客戶對性能的期望,這些電動車需要高效的電力電子元件,如SiCGaN技術。因此,所有的動力傳動系統將會包括幾許多元件,但GaNSiC可以在效率方面做到差異化。那麼,GaNSiC在動力傳動系統中有哪些與眾不同之處,為什麼?

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: So, where will they offer advantages? Also, considering the R&D in progress.

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio:它們將在哪些方面提供優勢?同時也談談正在進行中的研發狀況。

Filippo Di Giovanni: Okay. So, as a premise, I would say that it is very active in proposing solutions, to the automotive industry that can allow designers to improve efficiency in all the main electric vehicle systems, which are traction inverters DC to DC converters. Onboard chargers and also climate control, units. We also produce dedicated the product, for the charging infrastructure, itself. ST, I would say pioneered the first automotive grade, the silicon carbide MOSFETs. And this, I have to say, have paved the way for the, rollout of electric vehicles in the market.

Filippo Di Giovanni:好的,一個前提是,我想說的是,它所提出的解決方案方面非常正面,對汽車產業來說,可以讓設計者提高所有主要的電動車系統效率,這些系統是牽引逆變器直流對直流(DC-DC)轉換器。車載充電器(OBC)和氣氛控制裝置。我們還為充電基礎設施本身生產專用產品。ST開創了第一個車用級SiC MOSFET。我必須說這有助於為電動車的市場推廣鋪路。

Filippo Di Giovanni: Our success was built on stronger cooperation with a market leader that made it possible to offer exactly what the industry needed in the- in the very beginning. Drastic efficiency improvements, brought by ST’s silicon carbides

Filippo Di Giovanni:我們的成功就建立在與市場領導者更密切的合作上,這讓我們能夠在一開始就提供產業所需要的東西。STSiC帶來了巨大的效率提升。

Filippo Di Giovanni: MOSFETs are enabling car makers to offer new models, which are capable of running longer distances for a given battery pack. Therefore, you know, making the electric vehicle itself more attractive to potential buyers by reducing what is known as “range anxiety”. GaN silicon carbides, of course, is a further step as specific applications like onboard charger or DC to DC converters will benefit from the technologies inherent high switching, high-frequency switching, capability, which in the end helped to reduce size, weight of electronics even further.

Filippo Di GiovanniMOSFET讓汽車製造商能夠提供新的車型,這些車型能在特定的電池組中運行更遠的距離。因此,你知道的,減少所謂的里程焦慮」,讓電動車本身對潛在買家更具有吸引力。當然,GaNSiC就更進一步了,因為如車載充電器或DC/DC轉換器等特定應用,將受益於該技術固有的高開關、高頻開關能力,最終這將有助於進一步減少電子元件的尺寸和重量。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: So, today, selected drivers are generally operated at the 400 or 800-volt and, IGBT converters have mainly been used. But in the 800-volt operating voltage range, they are increasingly being replaced by silicon carbide devices. So, the transition phase from silicon IGBT to silicon carbide MOSFET can request, several considerations in terms of design. What’s the situation between IGBT and silicon carbide here?

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio:所以,目前選定的驅動器一般運作於400800V,而且,主要使用了IGBT轉換器。但在800V工作電壓範圍內,它們正越來越多地被SiC元件所取代。因此,從矽IGBTSiC MOSFET的過渡階段需要在設計方面加以考慮。在這方面,IGBTSiC之間的情況又是怎麼樣的?

Filippo Di Giovanni: Well, Maurizio, the new high-performance and long-range electric vehicles are based on silicon carbide, just because IGBTs are not able to reduce it’s [00:07:00] dissipation, weight and size. And these are all conditions that I would say prerequisites for overall efficiency improvement. IGBTs have been offered at both 650 volts and 1200 volts. And today silicon carbide MOSFETs from ST offer the same voltage capability, making the transition quite smooth for both the 400 volts and 800-volt electric drivers. This is the situation as we see today.

Filippo Di Giovanni:好的,Maurizio。新的高性能和長距離電動車都是基於SiC的,只是因為IGBT不能無法降低其耗散、重量和尺寸。而這些都是我所說的整體效率提高的先決條件。目前提供的IGBT包括650V1200V電壓。而今天,STSiC MOSFET提供相同的電壓能力,使400V800V的電動驅動器過渡相當順利。這就是我們今天看到的情況。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: What about GaN in this regard of design? GaN is mainly used in the CDC converters for onboard the power supplies. It increases efficiency, reduces size, especially in the 48-volt bus systems, which are increasingly being used. So, currently, there are, as you know, a couple of GaN Device concepts. Can you tell me which is your direction into development and also considering the next wave of electrification?

Maurizio Di Paolo EmilioGaN在這方面的設計情況如何?GaN主要用於機載電源的CDC轉換器。它可以提高效率、減小尺寸,特別是在使用越來越多的48V匯流排系統中。所以,目前,如你所知,有幾個GaN Device的概念。你能談談哪些是你們的發展方向,同時考慮到下一波的電氣化?

Filippo Di Giovanni: Well, at ST we strongly believe that GaN is a natural companion of silicon carbide, but at the same time, we have to say that it is a bit behind the silicon carbide in terms of maturity especially for automotive use. Today the systems you mentioned are running on silicon carbide MOSFETs in the future. In the next future, redesigns will move to GaN for the reasons that you have just highlighted. And this is higher-frequency operation and, therefore, smaller size and higher power density. At our first focus as far as gallium nitride, I tried this on 650-volt products for onboard chargers and DC to DC converters. And the next step is likely to be in the range of 100-volt for gallium nitride that can suit, let me say, the 48-volt battery platforms, including mild hybrid versions of electric vehicles. This is how we see, you know, the gallium nitride semiconductors complimenting, silicon carbide MOSFETs.

Filippo Di Giovanni:是的,ST堅信GaNSiC的最佳拍擋,但同時,我們也必須說它在成熟度方面有點落後於SiC,特別是在汽車使用方面。現在,你提到系統的未來是在SiC MOSFET上運行。未來,如你剛才所強調的原因,重新設計的產品將轉向GaN。但這將是更高頻率作業,因此,尺寸更小,功率密度也更高。而以GaN而言,我們的首要重點在於 用於車載充電器和DC/DC轉換器的650V的產品。而下一步可能是在100V範圍內的GaN,適用於48V的電池平台,包括電動車的輕度混合動力車版本。這就是我們看GaNSiC MOSFET半導體的情況

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio:  What about, inverter? So, in the power train we have a lot of systems. What about the competition? If we can say in this way, GaN silicon carbon, what are the issues? What do you think?

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio:那麼,變頻器呢?在動力傳動系統方面,我們有許多系統。競爭情況如何?或許我們可以這樣說,GaNSiC可能存在什麼問題?你認為呢?

Filippo Di Giovanni: Maurizio based on our success story regarding silicon carbide, I have to say that those products, silicon carbide MOSFETs, today and are and will still be for quite a long time. The main choice for building attraction inverter. Why? Because of the large availability of 1200-volt products, which I mentioned before for 800-volt bus and also to its proven and well-established ruggedness and simpler gate drive capability. As opposed to that gallium nitride EMS, as they are also named, are based on lateral technology, and exist only at 650-volts.

Filippo Di Giovanni:根據我們在SiC的成功經驗,我必須說,這些產品,包括SiC MOSFET,目前和將來都會存在相當長的一段時間。主要選擇在於建造牽引逆變器。為什麼呢?因為有大量的1200V產品,我之前提到800V匯流排,也是為了它的成熟度、完善的堅固性和更簡單的閘極驅動能力。與GaN EMS相反的是,因為它們也是基於橫向技術來命名,而且只存在於650V電壓。

So, they need special circuits for blocking 1200-volt using, for instance, a multi-level topology in- in a traction inverter. So, and at the same time, ST strategy is to offer both technologies and work with partners to meet the requirements. But needless to remark that ST also offers its application expertise in addressing new circuit concepts. To summarize, today, we think that the most suitable technology for attraction inverter is silicon carbide. There could be the possibility of using GaN in an inverter, but, for 1200-volt for 800-volt batteries, for instance, special circuits are needed, like multi-level. But we will be offering both, and we are interested in working with partners and customers in order to offer the right product for the right application at the right cost.


Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: So, silicon carbide modules. So, there has been a significant development activities on that. So, with an important focus on packaging materials such as diet to attach and substrate interconnections. So, the packaging of modules must be suitable. A new type a new technology of packaging must meet the requirements of wideband gap semiconductor; at 100% for sure. So, where in which you can benefit from high-temperature- high-temperature operation, high-frequency switching, and so on? So, what are your considerations here?

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio:所以,SiC模組在這方面已經有了重大的發展。關注重點在於封裝材料,如晶片黏著和基板互連等。因此,模組的封裝必須適用。一種新的封裝技術類型必須能滿足寬能隙半導體的要求。這是100%肯定的。那麼,哪些方面可以從高溫操作、高頻開關等方面受益?那麼,在這方面必須考慮什麼?

Filippo Di Giovanni: We recognized that challenged early and invested in R&D and brought innovative solutions to the market at the right time. For instance, ST has been the only silicon carbide supplier to start offering MOSFETs rated at 200-degrees in standard plastic packages like the TO2 47 to fully exploit the new technology, including also its thermal behavior. Our high-volume package, which we name ST Pack, which we developed specifically for inverter applications, is equipping today millions of electric vehicles on the road. We can estimate it as- as being around 5 million different cars. It uses novel techniques such as silver centering also for attaching it to the it sinks. This results in better thermal contact and superior long-term reliability.

Filippo Di Giovanni:我們很早就體認到這一挑戰,並投資於研發,在適切的時間為市場帶來創新的解決方案。例如,STSiC供應商中唯一開始以標準塑料封裝(TO2 47)提供200度額定溫度的MOSFET,以充份利用新技術,也包括其熱行為。我們的大量封裝稱之為ST Pack,專門為逆變器應用而開發,目前已用於裝備道路上約數百萬輛電動車中,估計大約是  500萬輛不同的汽車。它使用了新穎的技術,如銀質中心化,並用於將其連接到汲極,帶來更好的熱接觸和卓越的長期可靠性。

Our upcoming power modules will follow exactly the same approach, which means that they will exploit new assembly techniques and materials to maximize the benefits of the wideband gap semiconductors like silicon carbide. Now the good results in terms of thermal resistance and better long-term reliability for using silver centering instead of thermal interface material for attaching a discrete package like the ST-pack onto a base plate will be extended to the next generation of high-power modules inherently much more complex, of course, than the  ST-Pack itself, which is a discreet package. Another example worth being mentioning is internal connections. And we are working very hard in order to reduce the internal inductance associated with internal connections in order to reduce a ringing phenomena that may result in critical operation. So, this is basically how we see,  you know, the packaging activity vis-a-vis that of technology development.


Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: Move into silicon carbide to wafers fabrication. So, it is a delicate process. Not all wafers are ideal for the- the final devices- final devices such as MOSFETs, for example. So, there are challenges, several challenges associated with the manufacturing [00:16:00] of- of silicon carbide wafers. Some obstacles are like those the industry faced in growing larger silicon waves, including the purity the fact density of the basic material and manufacturing process. As the industry is- is moving– moves from internal combustion and gene to electric vehicles the adoption of new solution that can increase efficiency and offer longer range and faster charging will provide benefit across the- the- power train.

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio:接下來談談SiC的晶圓製造。這是一個微妙的過程。並非所有的晶圓都適合最終的元件——諸如MOSFET。因此也存在一些挑戰,一些與SiC晶圓製造有關的挑戰。有些像是業界在生長更大矽晶時面臨的那些障礙,包括基本材料和製造製程的純度和密度。隨著產業的發展,從內燃機轉向電動車,採用新的解決方案有助於提高效率,提供更長續航里程以及更快的充電速度,這將為整個動力傳動系統帶來好處。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio:  And at the same time, device manufacturers. Should ensure to have access to high-quality substrate to support their customer’s supply chain with the goal to be vertically integrated maybe as much as possible is very important. Supply chain capacity for both waves. And devices need to- to increase. So, the cost per waver still needs to come down.  So, what sort of improvements does the current technology need? So, the approach also to fabrication to semiconductor fabrication and packaging, I guess, plays an important role in device reliability.

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio:同時,元件製造商應該確保取得高品質的基板,以支援客戶的供應鏈,盡可能實現垂直整合的目標仍然非常重要。這兩種晶圓的供應鏈能力和元件產量都需要增加。因此,晶圓的成本仍然需要降低。那麼,目前的技術需要如何改善?我認為,製造的方法以及半導體製造和封裝的方法在元件的可靠性方面起著重要的作用。

Filippo Di Giovanni: You are right.  I fully agree with you Maurizio. Silicon carbide processes are more challenging than those of silicon.  As we all know it- it took us years of investment ha- and hard work to get where we are today. This is because of the material hardness and the presence of defects in the substrate. But having started producing automotive products earlier than most competitors, ST has managed to master defects with dedicated testing flows and judicious screening techniques. Using this, we have already sent into the field more than 200- million chips. We can say that today the automotive industry is using more than 200 million different silicon carbides mosfet chips from ST. ST is very attentive when it comes to assuring a reliable and secure supply chain. Our acquisition of Norstel in 2019 enabled us to create a vertically integrated and full supply chain.

Filippo Di Giovanni:你說的沒錯,我完全同意Maurizio你的看法。SiC的製程比矽製程更具挑戰性。眾所周知,我們花了多年的投資和努力工作才取得了今天的成就。我們今天的情況。這是因為材料的硬度和基材中存在的缺陷。但由於比大多數競爭對手更早開始生產汽車產品,ST已經設法通過專門的測試流程和明智的篩選技術來掌握缺陷。利用這一點,我們已經將超過2億顆晶片投入現場了。我們可以說,當今汽車產業正使用ST2億多顆不同SiC MOSFET晶片。在保證可靠和安全的供應鏈方面,ST專注用心,2019年收購了Norstel,讓我們得以創建一個垂直整合的完整供應鏈。

We are now building a new integrated fab close to our main production site in Katana Italy. This fab will be the first of its kind in Europe and our target is to source at least 40% of our silicon carbide wave needs. Using in-house internal substrates produced in- in this new plant and this new factory by 2024. Also, we opened a second silicon carbide manufacturing line at the end of 2021 in Asia in Singapore. This is also contributing to our wafer capacity to respond o the increasing demand by mass electrification. We have already proven our ability to build the 200-millimeter or eight-inch wave prototypes in- in Sweden. And this attests to the importance that ST attaches to expanding to 200-millimeter waivers. By the way, it’s important also to underline that, our equipment and machinery can already handle 200-millimeter wafers. So we expect the transition to be quite smooth.


Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: So, Filipo, as conclusion, so, you mentioned different aspects about silicon carbide for electric vehicles. Just last comment on the next wave of GaN and silicon carbide for the next electrifications. Electrification challenges for improving cost manufacturing design. Also, re- re-reliability in GaN for electrification. So, what’s next in conclusion?

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio:那麼,Filipo,最後你提到了關於SiC用於電動車的各種不同面向。針對GaNSiC實現下一個電氣化的新一波浪潮以及改善成本製造設計的電氣化挑戰發表評論,以及GaN在電氣化方面的可靠性。總結來看,下一步又是什麼?

Filippo Di Giovanni: Very good question indeed. today we are a market leader in Silicon by with an estimated share of 50%. According to Yole. So, we are quite meticulous in introducing technology generations and new iterations to bring additional advantages and suit the ever more challenging requirements of our customers specifications and mission profiles. To be clear and more specific, we introduced the third generation of our technology at the end of 2021. And we are now in the process of proliferating the product lineup with more patent numbers and devices. The next generation, gen four which will represent another important step forward, is expected to be qualified by the end of this year. But in parallel, we are also deeply engaged in realizing the benefits of multiple hidden improvements related to continuous ill maximization and bubble to the 200 millimeters wafer size switch over.

Filippo Di Giovanni:這確實是個好問題。如今,我們是矽的市場領導者,根據 Yole的資料,我們的市佔率達50%。因此,我們在導入技術世代和新的迭代方面相當嚴謹,因而帶來更多的優勢,並適合我們的客戶在規格和任務概況方面更具挑戰性的要求。為了更加明確和具體,我們在2021年底推出了第三代技術,現在也正在用更多的專利數和設備擴大產品陣容。下一代產品,即第四代產品將代表另一步重要進展,預計將在今年年底獲得認證。但與此同時,我們也在深入實現多個與良率最大化有關的潛在改進和轉換至200毫米晶圓優勢。

So, the last question, “What comes next in the longer term?” Well, I- I have to make a special effort, and I would say that why not think in a longer-term horizon of a new revolutionary technology iteration using the best processes successfully debugged in silicon over the last years such as super junction and trench. I know that a question cannot be answered with another question, but this gives an idea of how much we are- we are busy today improving our silicon carbide MOSFETs to keep and consolidate our leadership. And we want to still be innovative. And why not? Why not using some processes that have successfully been implemented on silicon and to optimize them for silicon carbide processes like super junction or trench. Why not? This is something that you know would be very- very interesting to realize in the next years.

最後一個問題,從長遠來看,下一步是什麼?」我想這必須格外付出努力,我想說的是,為什麼不從更長遠的角度來思考一個新的革命性技術迭代,使用過去幾年來在矽中成功除錯的最佳製程,如超接面和溝槽。我知道一個問題不能用另一個問題來回答,但這可以說明我們有多麼忙於改進SiC MOSFET,以保持和鞏固我們的領先地位,而且我們還希望持續創新。為什麼不呢?為什麼不使用一些已經在矽上成功實施的製程,並將其優化到SiC製程中,如超接面或溝槽技術。為什麼不呢?這是在未來的幾年裡,你知道將會是非常有意思的實現。


Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: Yes, and for sure right now we can talk in the– in one of the next podcasts. Thanks a lot Filippo thanks for joining at Power Up and an insightful conversation about wide bank gap for electric vehicle. Thank you.

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio. 是的,現在我們可以肯定的是在下一集podcast中進一步談談。非常感謝Filippo,謝謝你參加Power Up,並就電動車的寬能隙半導體發表獨到的見解。謝謝你。

Filippo Di Giovanni: Philipp. My real pleasure Maurizio. Thank you.

Filippo Di Giovanni: 這是我的榮幸,Maurizio,謝謝你。

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio: That brings us to the end of this episode. Stay tuned with more news and technical aspects about power electronics. If you are listen to this on the podcastPage@eetimes.com or PowerElectronicsNews.com links to articles on topics we have discussed our shown on this page. PowerUp is brought to you by AspenCore Media. The host is Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio and the producer is James Ede. Thank you everyone for listening you next episode. Stay tuned.

Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio:今天的這一集已經來到尾聲了。敬請持續關注有關電力電子的更多新聞和技術。如果您正在eetimes.compowerelectronicsnews.compodcast頁面上收聽此內容,那麼,在此頁面還供了與我們討論過的主題相關文章鏈接。PowerUPAspenCore Media提供給您。主持人是Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio。製作人是James Ead。謝謝大家的聆聽。下集見。敬請關注。

參考原文:Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors for EVs